# Fundamentals_Of_Electric_Circuits-5th-Edition.pdf

Fundamentals of Electric CircuitsFiFth EditionCharles K. Alexander | Matthew n. o. SadikuFundamentals of Electric CircuitsFiFth EditionAlexanderSadikuWith its objective to present circuit analysis in a manner that is clearer, more interesting, and easier to understand than other texts, Fundamentals of Electric Circuits by Charles Alexander and Matthew Sadiku has become the student choice for introductory electric circuits courses. Building on the success of the previous editions, the fifth edition features the latest updates and advances in the field, while continuing to present material with an unmatched pedagogy and communication style.Pedagogical Features■ Problem-Solving Methodology. A six-step method for solving circuits problems is introduced in Chapter 1 and used consistently throughout the book to help students develop a systems approach to problem solving that leads to better understanding and fewer mistakes in mathematics and theory.■ Matched Example Problems and Extended Examples. Each illustrative example is immediately followed by a practice problem and answer to test understanding of the preceding example. one extended example per chapter shows an example problem worked using a detailed outline of the six-step method so students can see how to practice this technique. Students follow the example step-by-step to solve the practice problem without having to flip pages or search the end of the book for answers.■ Comprehensive Coverage of Material. not only is Fundamentals the most comprehensive text in terms of material, but it is also self-contained in regards to mathematics and theory, which means that when students have questions regarding the mathematics or theory they are using to solve problems, they can find answers to their questions in the text itself. they will not need to seek out other references. ■ Computer tools. PSpice? for Windows is used throughout the text with discussions and examples at the end of each appropriate chapter. MAtLAB? is also used in the book as a computational tool.■new to the fifth edition is the addition of 120 national instruments Multisim? circuit files. Solutions for almost all of the problems solved using PSpice are also available to the instructor in Multisim. ■ We continue to make available KCidE for Circuits (a Knowledge Capturing integrated design Environment for Circuits).■ An icon is used to identify homework problems that either should be solved or are more easily solved using PSpice, Multisim, and/or KCidE. Likewise, we use another icon to identify problems that should be solved or are more easily solved using MAtLAB.Teaching ResourcesMcGraw-hill Connect? Engineering is a web-based assignment and assessment platform that gives students the means to better connect with their coursework, with their instructors, and with the important concepts that they will need to know for success now and in the future. Contact your McGraw-hill sales representative or visit www. connect.mcgraw-hill.com for more details.the text also features a website of student and instructor resources. Check it out at www.mhhe.com/alexander.MD DALIM 1167970 10/30/11 CYAN MAG YELO BLACKTMale80571_fm_i-xxii_1.qxd 12/2/11 5:00 PM Page if i f t h e d i t i o nFundamentals of Electric CircuitsCharles K. AlexanderDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringCleveland State UniversityMatthew N. O. SadikuDepartment of Electrical EngineeringPrairie View A in fact, space represents the most exciting frontier for the entire world! In addition, much of the Rover itself consists of all kinds of circuits. Circuits that must work without needing maintenance!Once you are on Mars, it is hard to find a technician! The Rover must have a power system that can supply all the power necessary to move it, help it collect samples and analyze them, broadcast the results back to Earth, and receive instructions from Earth. One of the important issues that make the problem of working with the rover is that it takes about 20 minutes for communications to go from the Earth to Mars. So the Rover does not make changes required by NASA quickly.What we find most amazing is that such a sophisticated and com- plicated electro-mechanical device can operate so accurately and reli-ably after flying millions of miles and being bounced onto the ground! Here is a link to an absolutely incredible video of what the Rover is all about and how it got to Mars: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=5UmRx4dEdRI. Enjoy!Features New to This EditionA model for magnetic coupling is presented in Chapter 13 that will makeanalysis easier as well as enhance your ability to find errors. We have suc- cessfully used this model for years and felt it was now time to add it to the book. In addition, there are over 600 new end-of-chapter problems, changed end-of-chapter problems, and changed practice problems. We have also added National Instruments MultisimTMsolutions for almost all of the problems solved using PSpice?. There is a Multisim tutorial available on our website. We have added National Instruments Multisim since it is very user-friendly with many more options for analysis than PSpice. In addition, it allows the ability to modify circuits easily in order to see how changing circuit parameters impacts voltages, currents, and power. We have also moved the tutorials for PSpice, MAT- LAB?, and KCIDE to our website to allow us to keep up with changes in the software. We have also added 43 new problems to Chapter 16. We did thisto enhance using the powerful s-domain analysis techniques to finding voltages and currents in circuits.Retained from Previous EditionsA course in circuit analysis is perhaps the first exposure students have to electrical engineering. This is also a place where we can enhance some of the skills that they will later need as they learn how to design.ale80571_fm_i-xxii_1.qxd 12/2/11 5:00 PM Page xixiiPrefaceAn important part of this book is our 121 design a problem problems. These problems were developed to enhance skills that are an important part of the design process. We know it is not possible to fully develop a student’s design skills in a fundamental course like circuits. To fully develop design skills a student needs a design experience normally reserved for their senior year. This does not mean that some of those skills cannot be developed and exercised in a circuits course. The text already included open-ended questions that help students use creativ- ity, which is an important part of learning how to design. We already have some questions that are open-ended but we desired to add much more into our text in this important area and have developed an approach to do just that. When we develop problems for the student to solve our goal is that in solving the problem the student learns more about the theory and the problem solving process. Why not have the students design problems like we do? That is exactly what we do in each chapter. Within the normal problem set, we have a set of prob- lems where we ask the student to design a problem to help other stu- dents better understand an important concept. This has two veryimportant results. The first will be a better understanding of the basic theory and the second will be the enhancement of some of the student’s basic design skills. We are making effective use of the principle of learning by teaching. Essentially we all learn better when we teach a subject. Designing effective problems is a key part of the teaching process. Students should also be encouraged to develop problems, when appropriate, which have nice numbers and do not necessarily overemphasize complicated mathematical manipulations. A very important advantage to our textbook, we have a total of 2,447 Examples, Practice Problems, Review Questions, and End-of- Chapter Problems! Answers are provided for all practice problems and the odd numbered end-of-chapter problems.The main objective of the fifth edition of this book remains the same as the previous editions—to present circuit analysis in a manner that is clearer, more interesting, and easier to understand than other cir- cuit textbooks, and to assist the student in beginning to see the “fun” in engineering. This objective is achieved in the following ways:? Chapter Openers and Summaries Each chapter opens with a discussion about how to enhance skills which contribute to successful problem solving as well as success- ful careers or a career-oriented talk on a sub-discipline of electri- cal engineering. This is followed by an introduction that links the chapter with the previous chapters and states the chapter objectives. The chapter ends with a summary of key points and formulas. ? Problem-Solving Methodology Chapter 1 introduces a six-step method for solving circuit prob- lems which is used consistently throughout the book and media supplements to promote best-practice problem-solving procedures. ? Student-Friendly Writing Style All principles are presented in a lucid, logical, step-by-step man- ner. As much as possible, we avoid wordiness and giving too much detail that could hide concepts and impede overall understanding of the material.ale80571_fm_i-xxii_1.qxd 12/2/11 5:00 PM Page xiiPrefacexiii? Boxed Formulas and Key Terms Important formulas are boxed as a means of helping students sort out what is essential from what is not. Also, to ensure that students clearly understand the key elements of the subject matter, keyterms are defined and highlighted. ? Margin Notes Marginal notes are used as a pedagogical aid. They serve multiple uses such as hints, cross-references, more exposition, warnings, reminders not to make some particular common mistakes, and problem-solving insights. ? Worked Examples Thoroughly worked examples are liberally given at the end of every section. The examples are regarded as a part of the text andare clearly explained without asking the reader to fill in missing steps. Thoroughly worked examples give students a good under-standing of the solution process and the confidence to solve prob- lems themselves. Some of the problems are solved in two or three different ways to facilitate a substantial comprehension of the sub- ject material as well as a comparison of different approaches. ? Practice Problems To give students practice opportunity, each illustrative example is immediately followed by a practice problem with the answer. The student can follow the example step-by-step to aid in the solutionof the practice problem without flipping pages or looking at the end of the book for answers. The practice problem is also intended to test a student’s understanding of the preceding example. It will reinforce their grasp of the material before the student can move on to the next section. Complete solutions to the practice problems are available to students on the website. ? Application Sections The last section in each chapter is devoted to practical application aspects of the concepts covered in the chapter. The material cov- ered in the chapter is applied to at least one or two practical prob- lems or devices. This helps students see how the concepts are applied to real-life situations. ? Review Questions Ten review questions in the form of multiple-choice objective items are provided at the end of each chapter with answers. The review questions are intended to cover the little “tricks” that the examples and end-of-chapter problems may not cover. They serve as a self test device and help students determine how well they have mastered the chapter. ? Computer Tools In recognition of the requirements by ABET?on integrating computer tools, the use of PSpice, Multisim, MATLAB, KCIDE for Circuits, and developing design skills are encouraged in a student- friendly manner. PSpice is covered early on in the text so that stu- dents can become familiar and use it throughout the text. Tutorials on all of these are available on our website. MATLAB is also intro- duced early in the book.ale80571_fm_i-xxii_1.qxd 12/2/11 5:00 PM Page xiii? Design a Problem Problems Finally, design a problem problems are meant to help the student develop skills that will be needed in the design process. ? Historical TidbitsHistorical sketches throughout the text provide profiles of impor- tant pioneers and events relevant to the study of electrical engineering. ? Early Op Amp DiscussionThe operational amplifier (op amp) as a basic element is introduced early in the text. ? Fourier and Laplace Transforms Coverage To ease the transition between the circuit course and signals and systems courses, Fourier and Laplace transforms are covered lucidly and thoroughly. The chapters are developed in a mannerthat the interested instructor can go from solutions of first-order circuits to Chapter 15. This then allows a very natural progression from Laplace to Fourier to AC. ? Four Color Art Program An interior design and four color art program bring circuit drawings to life and enhance key pedagogical elements throughout the text. ? Extended Examples Examples worked in detail according to the six-step problem solv- ing method provide a roadmap for students to solve problems in a consistent fashion. At least one example in each chapter is devel- oped in this manner. ? EC 2000 Chapter Openers Based on ABET’s skill-based CRITERION 3, these chapter open- ers are devoted to discussions as to how students can acquire theskills that will lead to a significantly enhanced career as an engi- neer. Because these skills are so very important to the student while still in college as well after graduation, we use the heading, “Enhancing your Skills and your Career.” ? Homework Problems There are 468 new or changed end-of-chapter problems which will provide students with plenty of practice as well as reinforce key concepts. ? Homework Problem Icons Icons are used to highlight problems that relate to engineering design as well as problems that can be solved using PSpice, Mul- tisim, KCIDE, or MATLAB.OrganizationThis book was written for a two-semester or three-quarter course in linear circuit analysis. The book may also be used for a one-semester course by a proper selection of chapters and sections by the instructor. It is broadly divided into three parts.? Part 1, consisting of Chapters 1 to 8, is devoted to dc circuits. It covers the fundamental laws and theorems, circuits techniques, and passive and active elements.xivPrefaceale80571_fm_i-xxii_1.qxd 12/2/11 5:00 PM Page xivPrefacexv? Part 2, which contains Chapter 9 to 14, deals with ac circuits. It introduces phasors, sinusoidal steady-state analysis, ac power, rms values, three-phase systems, and frequency response. ? Part 3, consisting of Chapters 15 to 19, are devoted to advanced techniques for network analysis. It provides students with a solid introduction to the Laplace transform, Fourier series, Fourier trans- form, and two-port network analysis.The material in the three parts is more than suffici